The project manager manages not only the project but also his teams and stakeholders. The work of a project manager requires not only deep professional knowledge but also energy.
Project management processes and product development require time and energy. And the manager is first and foremost a man. Reference: https://bvop.org/journal/types-of-managers/
Working capacity determines the dynamics, duration, and efficiency of work tasks. Its sources are revealed in the functional readiness for work of the central nervous system, in the peculiarities of the work dominant, in the degree of activity, in the course of mental processes, and in the characteristics of mental states. are the laws of mental regulation, which is carried out at different levels. Of particular importance is this type of higher regulation, which is determined by socio-psychological factors.
One of the important mental factors for increasing the working capacity is revealed in the attitude of the employee to the assigned work-professional tasks. This depends on the orientation of the individual, mainly on the public and personal need for timely, quality performance of professional tasks. Depending on the evaluation attitude of the individual and the team, we find different working capacity, which affects labor productivity. Social factors, and in particular the social-mental nod, influence not only the attitude towards work but at the same time determine the ability to work.
Performance indicators of the project manager
Qualitative and quantitative indicators of working capacity may increase or decrease depending on the interest shown in the subject of work, the ability to maintain this interest, and especially to be satisfied in and through the work – professional activity. Maintaining interest in the work largely depends not only on the personal orientation but also on the general spirit in the team and the requirements that are placed on the working group. Under such conditions, the work is done with increased concentration of attention, perseverance, and perseverance in performing professional tasks. The purposefulness and sustainability of professional interests are important factors for maintaining and increasing efficiency. Decreased interest leads to feelings of dissatisfaction and a weakening of the will to work. In these cases, the achievements of the workers are below the optimal level.
The increase or decrease of the interest depends on the attitude of the individual to the set professional tasks, as well as on the forms of work organization, including the relations in the team. Improper understanding of professional tasks, as well as the created conflict situations usually lead to unsustainable working capacity, especially in the phase of fatigue, when there is a significant decrease in interest in work, even the loss of the incentive to work. Prolonged activity in the same field and especially monotonous work lead to a decrease in working capacity, which is based on the relationship of boredom to the activity. In these cases, we observe a state of satiety, a weak will to overcome difficulties, frequent cases of distraction. , reduced activity and even refusal to work, especially in the absence of positive incentives in the team.
The degree of efficiency and motivation
The degree of working capacity varies significantly depending on the nature of the motivation, depending on what the person wants and expects from his work, what are the incentive motives that are leading in the performance of work tasks, insofar as they are related to the requirements. of the team. It is established that the volitional effort to overcome difficulties increases endurance, mobilizes forces, reduces the negative effects of fatigue. Reference: “Theories of the motivational process in organizations and employees”, https://www.vbprojects.org/theories-of-the-motivational-process-in-organizations-and-employees/
In the performance curve, the role of volitional control is particularly clear in the so-called final effort phase before the completion of work. In these cases, it is important to expect the final result and the associated state of satisfaction, not only from personal achievements but also from the contribution of the team. The role and motivation are especially clear in the competitive relations in the work team. In these cases, we see a significant increase in performance and especially endurance as a major component of performance. This is already about the influence of the social and mental climate in general on the ability to work.
The optimal working condition is associated with high activity of the main mental processes that are of leading importance for given work activity. Readiness for work is expressed mainly in the increased activity of cognitive processes, motor activity, the organization of attention. This determines the degree of orientation in the work task and realizes the choice of methods and means for its implementation. Of importance is the fact that the mental regulation of activity in a state of increased activity is a higher type: they are associated not only with sensory-motor control but also with mental and volitional control. We observe this especially when overcoming difficulties in work and when requiring active and creative learning in solving some production tasks, as well as in complex problem situations. The certified project manager can handle tasks because of their experience and skills. Reference: The need for a certified project manager
Human functional capabilities regulate effort in the work process. But for this regulation depends on the individual and age capabilities for physical or mental work, as well as on the activation of forces and their maintenance for a long time. The higher or lower activity also depends on the developed work stereotype, on the way, and the attitude of the work. But at the same time, it reveals an important stimulus in the social and mental climate of the team.
Mental readiness for work is one of the important factors, ensuring proper and easy employment and reaching an active working state. When determining the readiness for work, the initial stimulus is important, which gives them a further tone of the work. This initial stimulus contains many socio-psychological components, mainly in the field of socio-psychological climate, expressed primarily in the relationships and leadership of the team. The created work dominant determines the mental setting for work and maintains the good activity of mental processes, attention, motor activity, etc. This work dominance depends not only on the individual attitude and activity but too much is determined by the internal organization and relationships in the team. Mental readiness for work also depends on the information about the individual and collective results of the work done. Such current information maintains high activity and thus contributes to the preservation of high performance. The results achieved in the performance of work tasks stimulate the further activity of the individual and the team. In this case, we can talk about long-term readiness for work, which creates a physical, sensory, mental, volitional, and emotional setting to maintain high productivity. When starting a new project, the project manager feels pressure and needs the energy to present themselves to the team and present the new project requirements and goals. Reference: “The project manager presents the new project to the team”, https://phron.org/the-project-manager-presents-the-new-project-to-the-team/
In professions that require quick decision-making in the conditions of changing work situations and increased stress, we are talking about another type of mental readiness for work, namely readiness for emergency actions in new unforeseen working conditions. This is especially evident when working in a small group. This type of professional activity requires increased activity over a long period, high resistance to distracting stimuli, constant resistance to attention, high mental endurance, mental compatibility in the work of the small group.
Active involvement in the work has a positive impact on the ability to work and ensures its preservation. Thus, with active participation in productive activity at the end of the working day compared to the beginning of the working day, we find increased activity and resilience in the course of mental processes, for example, we observe improved visual-motor reaction, expressed in shortening latent response time, reducing errors actions. This shows that with conscious and active involvement in the work tasks, good working capacity is maintained for a longer time. It also depends on the social and mental atmosphere in the team.
Easy project management tasks
With light tasks and with weak or uneven activation, with insufficient conscious attitude, with weak stimulation in the team, the working capacity decreases. Thus, at the end of a poorly condensed and poorly organized working day compared to the data before work we find changes in performance, expressed in prolongation of the latent period of response, increasing the number of inadequate reactions, deterioration of visual-motor coordination, decreased endurance. This gives us reason to believe that uneven and insufficient involvement in employment leads to unstable work dominance. Therefore, despite the low level of active employment, the working capacity is not maintained but is often reduced too often. All this shows that the decrease in working capacity is not always the result of physical or mental workload, but can be caused by a passive mental state, insufficient workload, and organization, especially due to low demands in the work team. Decreased activity in these cases leads to a weakening of attention and interest and hence often observed self-exclusion from work, a state of boredom and passivity. This in turn affects some significant features of the social and mental climate. The certified project manager can express many professionals skills related to the management of projects and people but self-management qualities are also required. Reference: Qualities of the certified project manager
The emotional states of the project manager
Another important psychological factor for performance is revealed in emotional states. In this regard, we should consider how the different emotional states affect and under what conditions they are created in the work team as an important element of the social and mental climate.
When evaluating the relationships in the team, we have in mind the fact that the state of emotional upheaval positively stimulates the ability to work. Moderate emotional arousal maintains good working conditions and increased activity. Of particular importance is the phenomenon of wall emotions, in the presence of which we find greater speed, accuracy, and coordination of movements, increased speed and accuracy of sensory-motor coordination and reaction, increased activity of thought processes, stimulating creative search in solving production tasks. The joy of the activity itself and especially of the achieved results is also important, which are considered not only as personal achievements but also as an achievement of the team. We observe such a mental state of emotional upheaval when using moral and other stimuli in the team, especially in those cases when the product of labor receives public evaluation. Hence, in the practice of the organization and the management of the team, the positive emotional background of the work acquires special significance.
Asthenic emotions, caused by improper relationships in the team, lead to a decrease in performance. extinction of the working dominant.
The emotional background of work can be expressed in some cases in low self-esteem, insecurity, which leads to a kind of change in performance. We observe this in workers with lower qualifications, in the wrong choice of profession, in the wrong distribution of work tasks in the team, in the wrong attitude in the work team, such as underestimation of the capabilities of the individual worker, improper reprimands, or punishments, separation from team, low self-esteem, requirements that exceed individual capabilities, etc.
With persistently increased tension of unpleasant emotions, for example, due to underestimation not only of individual achievements but also the achievements of the team, we find that the working day begins with low performance, which further decreases at the end of the day. Thus, in physical work with high requirements that do not meet individual capabilities, some studies show a decrease in speed, stability, strength, and especially endurance; thermometric examinations show disorders of visual-motor coordination; we get low indicators in the study of attention and mental activity, while on working days with positive emotional stimulation and good work mood in the whole team these indicators remain almost the same, even some of them improve at the end of the working day based on the work dominant.
Emotional resilience is especially necessary when in the process of work some emergencies require quick and error-free action and optimal social and mental compatibility. This is typical for such workplaces where there is a risk of an accident.
Increased emotional tension can lead to fluctuations in performance, and in some cases to job failure, an expression of a state of disturbed internal balance, especially typical in the presence of improper relationships in the team. In this case, we are talking about emotional fatigue.
Stimulating the project managers in the work team
Stimulation in the work team reveals significant social and mental factors that determine the dynamics of working capacity. The social and mental climate occupies an important place among them. Activity as a social category affects the relationship between man and the environment, the relationships of people in the process of work. Hence, the ability to work is socially determined by the common tasks and the relationships created in the work team. Thus, the working capacity of the individual increases in collective work. With collectively set tasks, there is an increase in productivity in terms of quality and quantity.
The preservation and increase of the working capacity depend on the general style of work in the team, which is determined mainly by the interpersonal relations, the distribution of the individual tasks, and the management of the working group.
The internal organization of the team determines the opportunities for achieving high productivity. Of particular stimulating importance is the public assessment of the result of the work and the related awareness of the public importance of the timely and quality implementation of the tasks. An important requirement is that the tasks of the working team become the tasks of the individual member of the team. The exchange of experience and information between workers also has a stimulating effect on working capacity. Of particular importance is the ability to compare their work results with the results achieved by other workers.
Decreased working capacity
Phenomena of reduction of working capacity are observed in unhealthy teams, in inappropriately distributed tasks, in improper organization and management of the team. others. Thus, some mistakes in organizing the competition in the team can lead to a state of increased stress in individual workers when the requirements
are not tailored to individual capabilities and training. In these cases, we observe a decrease in performance associated with a sense of insecurity.
The mentioned psychological and social-mental factors for working capacity show the great importance of the mental state of the worker, which determines the relatively stable level of mental readiness for activity. The individual work characteristic is best revealed through the degree of activity, the attitude towards work, the emotional state, and the relationships in the team. Along with this, the behavior in the specific work situation is of special importance, determining both the performance of the tasks and the relationships in the team. The assessment of working capacity is based on the complex relationships between a person and a social and work situation, including the social and mental atmosphere. This determines not only the capabilities of the individual but also the character and dynamics of the ability to work.
All this shows the influence of working capacity by many psychological and social psychological factors. At the same time, the great possibilities for regulating the working capacity and managing the mental states by creating effective forms and methods of scientific organization of labor, by increasing the efficiency of individual and collective work are evident. This reveals some specific aspects of the mental regulation of labor productivity with a view to the optimal organization of individual and collective labor, to create positively stimulating mental states and hence reaching high labor productivity.